There is an estimation that every one in ten people in India are suffering from kidney diseases. Most of these people even do not know that they have kidney problem. There are many reasons for kidney problems. If the exact reason is found out, it is not a big problem to treat kidney diseases.Kidneys are small bean sized colorful organs that purify the blood. Health studies shows a person depends on the functioning of kidneys. If these do not work properly harmful wastes and fluids accumulate in the body leading many health problems. If Glomerular Functioning Rate is 60ml per minute, it means that the functioning of kidneys is good. If it is less that 60ml per minutes it can be understood that there is some problem with the kidneys.Kidney functioning as well as their structure is also important. Changes in size shape or location of the kidneys is also a problem. Sometimes functioning of kidneys will be good but the shape may have some differences. This may damage the kidney slowly. If one kidney is smaller than the other kidney, the bid kidney will have more work pressure and this may also damage the kidney. Having only one kidney or kidneys in lower abdomen, are some uncommon problems that may damage the kidneys in future.
Recognizing kidney problems
More Protein or Albumin in urine, if Creatine levels in kidney or more or high blood pressure may lead to kidney diseases. There will be five stages in kidney diseases. There will be no symptoms in the first three stages. Physical changes can be observed in fourth and fifth stages. Loss of appetite, breathlessness, weakness, nausea, vomiting while brushing the teeth etc symptoms appear only after the kidneys are 50% damaged. Swelling of face and legs symptoms appear only in final stages of kidney diseases. If a person is passing urine for five to six times at night without any diabetic problem, this may indicate kidney disease.
Diabetes and Kidney diseases
Major contributors to kidney diseases are Diabetes, High Blood Pressure and Obesity. There is no time for exercises in modern life style. Even for walking special time is to be allotted. With this number of people who are getting diabetes at young age is increasing. 50 – 60% children are suffering from Type – 2 Diabetes. Diabetes is also increasing the number of kidney disease patients. Kidney damage may happen from 5 to 10 years from the occurrence of Diabetes. Filters in kidneys get weakened by Diabetes problem. With this proteins also go out of the body along with urine. This further leads to damage of urinary tract. Diabetes is the main cause for 40% kidney failures.
Blood Pressure and Kidney diseases
Kidneys get damaged due to increased blood pressure. Number of Blood pressure patients is increasing due to stress and other reasons. BP in young age and kidney damaging has now become very common. Obesity, smoking and pollutions cause high blood pressure and all these increase blood pressure. Pollution makes the blood vessels thick. Blood flow will have problems with this. Urinary tract problems also lead to high blood pressure.
Generally the salt which is taken through food goes out of the body through urine. If there are any problems in the urinary tract, they consume the salt again. This increases salt content in blood and lead to blood pressure. Blood pressure and kidney problems are interrelated. Increased blood pressure damages kidneys. Damaged kidneys increase blood pressure.
Genetic reasons and Kidney problems
In some people genetic reasons may also be the cause for kidney diseases. Structure of kidney will not be normal in patients of Polycystic Kidney disease. 30 to 40% of kidneys will be damaged due to this. There will be changes in kidney filters due to Chronic Glomerulonephritis. Infection in urinary tract causes spots in kidneys and blocks those renal veins that supply blood to kidneys. This condition is called Renal Artery Stenosis. Using pain killers excessively also causes the arteries to contract. This increases blood pressure and damages the kidneys. Auto immune diseases like SLE, Rheumatoid Arthritis, brain diseases and heart diseases also damage the kidneys.
Dialysis and Kidney transplantation
Acute kidney diseases need dialysis and this improves the functioning of kidneys. If the damage is severe, kidney transplantation will become necessary. Dialysis is of two types. One type of which can be done at home and the other is that which is done in the hospital. Dialysis that is done in the hospital takes four to five years. When kidney transplantation becomes necessary, kidney is taken from the family members of the patient. Only 70 – 80% are suitable for kidney transplantation.
It is true that those who suffer from kidney problems have to reduce intake of proteins. But there will be no problems with vegetarian proteins. Non vegetarian food and salt is to be completely avoided. Fruits, fruit juices that contain Potassium are to be avoided. Taking more Potassium is also not good for the heart. Kidney patients can eat only apple and papaya. In the fourth and fifth stages of kidney diseases only vegetarian food should be taken.